Konflik dan Integrasi, Sebuah Kajian Awal: Kasus Kerusuhan Medan, April 1994

Wijaya K. Legowo


Problems of integration cannot be separated from conflicts. They are two sides of the same coin. A long, escalating conflict may contribute to disintegration. Schermerhorn (1978) on his valuable book mentions there are three models of integration: first, the harmony of the cultural problems; second, the conflict between subordination of an ethnic group and the superordinates, and third, problems of legitimacy. We have found many ethnic conflicts in the Indonesia’s plural society, especially the Chinese ethnic. The Indonesian Chinese minorities of Jakarta are still traumatized by and frightened of their memories for the Medan Riots (1994), the May Riots (1998) and the NTT incidents (2012), all of which are caused by the hatred feelings of majority towards the Indonesian Chinese ethnic.
Since the New Order Era, in order to come up with those problems, the government had issued numerous sets of regulations; however they had not fostered harmony of the ethnic relations within such plural society, particularly between the Indonesian Chinese ethnic and indigenous peoples in numerous regions. Based on the microscopic research on the Medan Riots, I have found a certain model problem of conflicts and integration: a certain relation between the Chinese ethnic and the bureaucracy has become one of the factors keeping the legitimation of conflicts.


Integration; disintegration; legitimation

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17510/paradigma.v3i1.34

Full Text:




Brown, David. The State and Ethnic Politics in Southeast Asia. New York: Routledge. 1994.

Coppel, Charles A. Tionghoa Indonesia Dalam Krisis. Jakarta: Pustaka Sinar Harapan. 1994.

Cushman, Jennifer dan Wang Gungwu. Perubahan Identitas Orang Cina di Asia Tenggara. Jakarta: Pustaka Utama Grafiti. 1991.

Fredericik, Barth. Kelompok Etnik & Batasannya. Jakarta: UI Press. 1988.

Geertz, Clifford. Politik Kebudayaan. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Kanisius. 1992.

Hariyono, P. Kultur Cina dan Jawa. Jakarta: Pustaka Sinar Harapan. 1993.

Jahja, Junus. Nonpri di Mata Pribumi. Jakarta: Yayasan Tunas Bangsa. 1991.

Keith, Legg. Tuan Hamba & Politisi. Jakarta: Sinar Harapan. 1983.

Ringer ,Benyamin B. dan Elimor R. Lowless. Race-Ethnicity and Society. New York: Routledge, Chapman & Hall. Inc. 1989.

Saifudin, A. Konflik dan Integrasi. Jakarta: CV. Rajawali. 1986.

Schermerhorn. Comparative Ethnic Relations. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. 1978.

Suryadinata, Leo. Dilema Minoritas Tionghoa. Jakarta: PT Grafiti Press. 1984.

Tan, Mely G. Golongan Etnis Tionghoa di Indonesia. Jakarta: PT Gramedia. 1981.


Kompas, kliping bulan Februari sampai dengan November 1994.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 Paradigma, Jurnal Kajian Budaya


Lisensi Creative Commons
Ciptaan disebarluaskan di bawah Lisensi Creative Commons Atribusi-BerbagiSerupa 4.0 Internasional


Free counters!View My Stats