Mendorong Pemahaman Kritis Tentang Dokumen-Dokumen Prinsipil dan Narasi Kebijakan Luar Negeri Am erika di Kawasan Asia Pasifik 2000-2010: Catatan Penelitian

Suzie Sudarman


This research note essentially highlights how an argumentation was developed to reveal the implicit tensions that had been part of the American foreign policy maneuvers in Asia-Pacific, and the locus that were expressed have caused controversy. The finding is an effort to formulate analysis of the American
foreign policy through an understanding of the nature of paradoxal and tension in the general American foreign policy, specifically in Asia-Pacific. Moreover, the pressures from outside the Asia-Pacific region, have eventually impacted the configuration of the publik officers and the experienced politicians in the 
locale, who have resulted policies to support the establishment of the relevant institutions in the region.


Implicit tensions; maneuvers; locus; paradoxal; configuration


Full Text:



Bachrach, Peter and Morton S. Baratz, “Two Faces of Power,” in American Political Science Review 56, i 4. 1962.

Barnett, Michael and Raymond Duvall, “Power in International Politics,” in International Organization 59 p.39-75. 2005.

Barnett , Thomas P. M. Great Powers. America and the Wprld After Bush New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons. 2009.

Beeson, Mark. “Introduction,” in ed., Mark Beeson, Bush and Asia. America’s Evolving Relations with East Asia. London: Routledge. 2006.

Bilgin, Pinar and Adam David Morton. “Historicising Representations of ‘Failed States’: Beyond the Cold War Annexation of the Social Sciences?”, dalam Third World Quarterly 23 No. 1. 2002.

Brown, Robin. “Information Technology and the Transformation of Diplomacy,” in Knowledge, Technology, & Policy 18 No. 2. 2004.

Carment, David. “Assessing State Failure: Implications for Theory and Policy”, dalam Third World Quarterly 24 No. 3. 2003.

Castells, Manuel. The Power of Identity, The Information Age, Economy, Society, and Culture. Blackwell Publishers. 1997. “Exit Polls: Vote a repudiation of Bush, war in Iraq,” accessed 8th November 2006. “Democrats look to sustain majority after anti-GOP wave,” accessed on 12th of November 2006.

Collinson, Stephen. “Clinton Promises ‘Smart Power’ Under Obama,” in Associated Press 14 January 2009.

Crawford, Neta. “The Road to Global Empire: The Logic of U.S. Foreign Policy After 9/11,” in Orbis 48 No. 4 p. 685—696. 2004.

Cumings, Bruce. “’Revising Postrevisionism,’ or The Poverty of Theory in Diplomatic History”, in Diplomatic History 17 No. 4. 1993.

Cumings, Bruce. “Still the American Century,” in Review of International Studies 25; I 05 p.271-299. 1999.

Dorff, Robert H. “Failed States After 9/11: What Did We Know and What Have We Learned?“, dalam International Studies Perspectives No. 6. 2005.

Farber, David. “Election ’96: The American Electorate,” an unpublished paper. 1996. Hasenclever, Andreas, Peter Mayer and Volker Rittberger. Theories of International Regimes. Cambridge University Press. 1997.

Gourevitch, Peter. “Domestic and International Relations,” in eds., Walter Carlsnes, Thomas Risse and Beth A. Simmons. Handbook of International Relations p. 309—328. Sage Publikations. 2005.

Huntington, Samuel P. American Ideals versus American Institutions,” in G. J. Ikenberry, American Foreign Policy, Theoretical Essays. Third Edition. p. 221—254. New York: Longman. 1999

Ikenberry, G. John. “Liberal Hegemony and the Future of American Postwar Order”, in eds., T.V. Paul and John A. Hall. International Order and the Future of World Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press. 1999.

Ikenberry, G. John. After Victory: Institutions, Strategic Restraint, and the Rebuilding of Order. Princeton N. J. : Princeton University Press. 2001.

Ikenberry, G. John, (ed.). “The American Grand Strategy in the Age of Terror,” in Survival 43 No. 4 p. 19—34. 2001-02.

Indyk, Martin S. Kenneth G. Lieberthal, and Michael C. O ’Hanlon. Bending History, Barack Obama’s Foreign Policy. Washington DC: Brookings Institution Press. 2012.

Kohut , Andrew and Bruce Stokes. America Against the World. How We Are Different and Why We Are Disliked. New York Times Book. 2006.

Kurth, James. “Globalization and Empire: The Effects of 9/11 and the Iraq War,” in eds., Bruce Mazlish et al. The Paradox of a Global USA. Stanford: Stanford University Press. 2007.

Lake, David A. Entangling Relations, American Foreign Policy in Its Century. Princeton: N.J.: Princeton University Press. 1999.

Lim, Merlyna. “Cyber-Civic Space in Indonesia. From Panopticon to Pandemonium?” in International Development Planning Review 24 No. 4 p. 383—400. 2002.

Mann, Michael. “The First Failed Empire of the 21st Century”, in Review of International Studies 30; i 04 p. 631—653. 2004.

Martin, Lisa L., and Beth A. Simmons. “Theories and Empirical Studies of International

Institutions,” in International Organization 52 No. 4. 1998.

Mauzy, Diane K. and Brian L. Job. “U.S. Policy in Southeast Asia. Limited Reengagement After Years of Benign Neglect”, in Asian Survey XLVII No. 4. 2007.

Mazarr, Michael J. “The Iraq War and Agenda Setting”, in Foreign Policy Analysis No. 3, i 1. 2007.

Mearsheimer, John J. “The False Promise of International Institutions,” in International Security 19 No. 3. 1994/95.

Nanto, Dick K. “East Asian Regional Architecture: New Economic and Security Arrangements and US Policy”, September 18, 2006 CRS Report for Congress RL33653. Congressional Research Service, The Library of Congress. 2006.

Phillips, Kevin. American Theocracy: The Peril and Politics of Radical Religion, Oil, and Borrowed Money in the 21st Century. New York: Viking. 2006.

PNAC. Rebuilding America’s Defenses. 2000.

Rotberg, Robert I. (ed.). State Failure and State Weakness in a Time of Terror. Brookings Institution Press. 2003.

Transcript: 2003 State of the Union Address.

U. S. Department of Defense Annual Report to the Congress. Fiscal Year 1992. Washington D.C. January 1991: 131-2.

U.S. Department of Defense, A Strategic Framework for the Asian Pacific Rim: Looking Toward the 21st Century, 1990; A Strategic Framework for the Asian Pacific Rim, 1992; The East Asia Strategy Report, 1994; Report on Bilateral Defense Cooperation for the 21st Century, 1997; The United States Security Strategy for the East Asia-Pacific Region, 1998; Military Power of the People’s Republik of China, Annual Report to Congress; The Quadrennial Defense Review, 1997; 2001; 2006, 2010.

United States Under Secretary of Defense (policy). Asia 2025. Summer School Study Newport R.I.: U.S. Naval War College. 1999.

Vaughn, Bruce and Wayne M. Morrison. “China-Southeast Asia Relations: Trends, Issues, and Implications for the United States,” Updated April 4, 2006 CRS Report for Congress RL32688. Congressional Research Service, The Library of Congress. 2006.

Weinstein, Franklin B. Indonesian Foreign Policy and The Dilemma of Dependence. From Sukarno to Soeharto. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. 1976.

Woo-Cumings, Meredith. unpublished manuscript., June 2004.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 Paradigma, Jurnal Kajian Budaya


Lisensi Creative Commons
Ciptaan disebarluaskan di bawah Lisensi Creative Commons Atribusi-BerbagiSerupa 4.0 Internasional


Free counters!View My Stats