Dewi Khairiah


This research on translation problems aims to describe the translation of cultural words from Entrok novel into The Years of the Voiceless (2013). This research was conducted through qualitative and functional approaches and was analyzed by using Williams and Chesterman’s causal comparative model to see the translation procedures applied to fulfill the skopos. Based on Newmark’s cultural words category, the researcher identified 80 cultural words that were categorized into (1) material culture; (2) social culture and leisure; and (3) organization, customs, procedure, activity, and concept. The data were collected through library research and interview with the translator. The research then used the causal comparative technique to compare the source text’s cultural words with its translation and to analyze the translation procedures chosen by the translator to fulfill the skopos of TT. There are four translation problems found in this research and they are: (1) a reference and concept in SL having no reference and concept in TL, (2) a reference and a concept in SL not lexicalized in TL, (3) TL lacking of specific words, and (4) different perspective between SL and TL in viewing a reference. To deal with those translation problems, there are 9 procedures applied by the translator that include explicitation, generalization, literal, calque, couplet (transference and footnote, transposition and cultural equivalent, transposition and functional equivalent), cultural equivalent, descriptive equivalent, functional equivalent, and transference. TT fulfills its skopos through the translation procedures applied by considering the ST’s context. According to the review of TT readers, TT is considered succeed to maintain the writer’s language of style and give the nuance of ST’s culture. The footnote also helps TT readers to understand ST cultural words but minimizes readers’ comfort in reading.


literary translation; cultural words; translation procedures; skopos


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